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Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Egypt but was developed and further refined by the Romans and the Arabs.
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. The amount and type of solvent mix with the fragrance oil dictates whether a perfume is considered a perfume extract, Eau de perfume, Eau de toilette, or Eau de Cologne.
Any natural or synthetic substance or substances use solely to impart a sweet or pleasant smell (odor) to a cosmetic product.
Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne is a type of light perfume that originated in Cologne, Germany and is defined by its typical concentration of about 2-5% essential oils.
Eau de Cologne is a spirit-citrus perfume launched in Cologne in 1709 by Giovanni Maria Farina 1685-1766. When Farina composed the perfume, he said he wanted it to have the odor of an Italian spring morning after the rain.
In a base of dilute ethanol (70-90%), Eau de Cologne contains a mixture of citrus oils including oils of lemon, orange, tangerine, bergamot, lime, grapefruit and neroli. It can also contain oils of lavender, rosemary, thyme, petitgrain (orange leaf), and jasmine.